Gregorevich Anton Rubinstein (also: Rubinštejn) (Russian: Рубинштейн Григорьевич;; Anton Grigorevich RoebinsjtejnVichvatinets (nowMoldova), 28 november 1829 – at PeterhofSaint Petersburgnovember 20, 1894) was a Russian pianist and composer.


[hide]*1 early life

Life Course[Edit]Edit

Rubinstein as a pianist was one of the greatest virtuosos of the nineteenth century, his game was both intense and impulsive as the only serious rival to Franz Liszt.

The Rubinstein's family, a Jewish family, moved from the southern Podolia to Moscow when Anton was five years old. When he was eight years he received his first piano lessons, by Alexander Villoing. As a composer and his brother Nikolai Rubinstein got his training between 1844 and 1847 inBerlin at Siegfried Dehn. In 1848 he settled in Saint Petersburg, then the capital of Russia. He laid the Foundation for a professional music culture in 1859 in Russia: he was the founder of theRussian music society and in 1862 he was the founder of the St. Petersburg Conservatory, (Russianгосударственная консерватория St. Петербургская имени Н. А. Римского-Корсакова) that he was well-known and famous Western European teachers took out. The national-Russian composers around Balakirev felt used and disappointed and have the admiration from Rubinstein especially for the German music tradition as a apologetic wrong track since. They went on distance of Rubinstein and his institution. The contradictions were not so stark musical bearings, such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, the best known and famous composer of the Conservatoire of Rubinstein has won both traditions.

His younger brother Nikolai Rubinstein was also pianist and composer and founder of a conservatory, namely the Moscow Conservatory.

Rubinstein wrote in a romantic, Western-oriented style. He kept it away from the members of the Five, which pursued a private Russian style. The music of Anton Rubinstein, understated during much of the 20th century, is again in the spotlight thanks to a revival of the romantic music in the last years. He has composed four piano concerts. Of his nineteen operas was the demon(premiere 25 January 1875 in the Imperial Theatre of St Petersburg) the most admired. His most famous work is the melody in F opus 3, no. 1 for piano. Hans von Bülow called him "the Michelangelo of music".


Works for Orchestra[Edit]Edit

[1]Anton Rubinstein, painted byIlya Repin====Symphonies[Edit]====

  • 1850 Symphony No. 1 in F major, op. 40 (dedicated to: Julius Stern)
    1. Allegro con fuoco
    2. Allegro
    3. Moderato con moto
    4. Allegro
  • 1852 Symphony No. 2 in C major "the ocean", for Orchestra, op. 42 (dedicated to Franz Liszt :)
    1. Allegro maestoso
    2. Adagio ma non tanto
    3. Allegro
    4. Adagio-Allegro con fuoco
  • 1853-1855 Symphony No. 3 in b-flat major, op. 56
    1. Allegro risoluto
    2. Adagio
    3. Scherzo (Allegro vivace assai)
    4. Finale (Allegro maestoso)
  • 1863 Symphony No. 2 in C major "the ocean" (revised version), for Orchestra
    1. Allegro maestoso
    2. Adagio in D major
    3. Allegro
    4. Adagio in e minor
    5. Presto (Scherzo)
    6. Adagio-Allegro con fuoco
  • 1874 Symphony No. 4 "dramatic Symphony" in d minor, op. 95
  • 1881 Symphony No. 5 in g minor, op. 107
    1. Moderato assai
    2. Allegro non troppo-moderato assai
    3. Andante
    4. Allegro vivace
  • 1887 Symphony No. 6 in a minor, op. 111
    1. Moderato con moto
    2. Moderato assai
    3. Allegro vivace
    4. Moderato assai-Allegro


  • 1847 Concerto (in one movement), for piano and Orchestra
  • 1849 , Concerto in C majorfor piano and Orchestra
  • 1849 Concerto in d minor, for piano and Orchestra (rewritten as Oktetin 1856, op. 9)
  • 1850 Concerto No. 1 in E major, for piano and Orchestra, op. 25
  • 1851 Concerto No. 2 in G major, for piano and Orchestra, op. 35
  • 1853-1854 Concerto No. 3 in F major, for piano and Orchestra, op. 45
  • 1857 Concerto in G majorfor violin and Orchestra, op.46
    1. Moderato assai
    2. Andante
    3. Moderato assai
  • 1864 Concerto in a minor, for cello and Orchestra, op. 65
    1. Moderato con moto
    2. Adagio
    3. Allegro con fuoco
  • 1864 Concerto No. 4 in d minor, for piano and Orchestra, op. 70
  • 1870 Romance et Caprice, for violin and Orchestra, op. 86
  • 1874 Concerto No. 5 in e-flat major, for piano and Orchestra, op. 94
  • 1878 Caprice russe in c minor, for piano and Orchestra, op. 102
  • Concert piece in As great, for piano and Orchestra, op. 113

Other works for Orchestra[Edit]Edit

  • 1854 Torzhestvennaya uvertura (triumph-Overture) for the coronation of Alexander II of Russia, for Orchestra, op. 43a
  • 1864 Faust-Ein musikalisches Charakterbild nach Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, for Orchestra, op. 68 (this work is a part of the Symphony of the same name, which has been lost)
  • 1869 Ivan IV (the terrible), for Orchestra, op. 79
  • 1870 Don Quixote, musical character picture for Orchestra, op. 87
  • 1882 La Russie, morceaux symphonique, for large Orchestra
  • 1890 Antony and Kleopatra, Overture for Orchestra, op. 116
  • The concert Overture in b-flat major, op. 60


Music Theatre[Edit]Edit

Oratorios and spiritual operas[Edit]Edit

Completed in title acts Premiere libretto
1855-1856 Das verlorene Paradies, op. 54 Weimar1858; If mental opera: 1875Düsseldorf Arnold Schlönbach to John Milton
1868-1869 Der Thurm zu Babel (The Tower of Babel), op. 80 1 Act 1870Kaliningrad: Königsberg, then still Julius Rodenberg
1882-1883 Sulamith 5 scenes 8 november1883Hamburg Julius rodenberg, to the song of songs
1887-1889 Moses, op. 112 8 scenes 1892Prague (only a dress rehearsal); concert: 1894,Riga Salomon Hermann Mosenthal
1892-1894 Christ, op. 117 Prologue, epilogue, 7 scenes 1895, Bremen Heinrich Bulthaupt-Alfred


Completed in title acts Premiere libretto
1849-1850 Kulikovskaja bitva (the battle on the Kulikov-field) or Dmitry Donskoy 3 acts 30 april1852Saint Petersburg Vladimir Sollogub and Vladimir Zotov to Vladislav Ozerov
1852 Sibirskie ochotniki (The Sibirische Hunter) 1 Act 1854, Weimar Andrej Žerebcov
1852-1853 Manure ' (the revenge); also known under the title: Hadji-Abrek 1 Act 1858, Saint-Petersburg Alexei Žemčužnikov to Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov
1853 CS-duračok (Cs, the buffoon) 1 Act 23 May1853, Saint-Petersburg Mikhail Mikhailov
1860-1861 That children's der Heide 4 acts 23 February1861ViennaTheater am Kärntnertor Salomon Hermann Mosenthal, to Karl Beck
1861-1862 Ferramors 3 acts 24 February1863Dresden, Vienna State Opera Julius rodenberg to Thomas Moore
1871 Demon (The demon) 3 acts 25 January1875, St. Petersburg, Imperial Theatre the componst, Pavel Viskovatov and Apollon Majkovto Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov
1872-1874 That Maccabäer (The Maccabees) 3 acts, 6 scenes 17 april1875, Berlin, the Vienna State Opera; in Russia fromcensorship-reasons first: 1877, Saint-Petersburg Salomon Hermann Mosenthal to Otto Ludwig
1875-1877 Nero 4 acts, 8 scenes 1 november1879, Hamburg Jules Barbier
1877-1879 Kupec Klašnikov (Merchant Kalašnikov) 3 acts 5 March1880, Saint-Petersburg Nikolai Kulikov to Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov
1883 Unter Räubern 1 Act 8 november1883, Hamburg Ernst Wichert to Théophile Gautier
1884 Der Papagei (The Parrot) 1 Act 11 november1884, Hamburg Hugo Wittmann to a fairy tale from the Persian Parrots book
1888 Gorjuša 4 acts 3 december1889, St. Petersburg, Imperial Theatre Dmitry Averkiev


Completed in title acts Premiere libretto choreography
1892 Der Wein 3 acts


  • 1852 Stenka Razin incidental music for this play

Work for choirs[Edit]Edit



See list of songs by Anton Rubinstein for the main article on this topic.

Chamber Music[Edit]Edit

  • 1854 , three piecesfor violin and piano, op. 11 no. 1
  • 1853-1854 , three piecesfor cello and piano, op. 11 no. 2
  • 1854 , three piecesfor Viola and piano, op. 11 no. 3
  • 1856 Octet in D major, for flute, clarinet, Horn, violin, Viola, cello, double bass and piano, op. 9
  • 1855-1857 , Two triosfor violin, cello and piano, op. 15
  • 1852-1855 String Quartet No. 1 in G major, op. 17 No. 1
  • 1852-1855 String Quartet No. 2 in c minor, op. 17 No. 2
  • 1853-1855 String Quartet No. 3 in F major, op. 17 No. 3
  • 1852 Sonata No. 1 in D major, for cello and piano, op. 18 No. 1
  • 1853 Sonata No. 2 in a minor, for violin and piano, op. 19
  • Sonata No. 2 in G major, for cello and piano, op. 39
  • 1856 String Quartet No. 4 in e minor, op. 47 No. 1
  • 1856 String Quartet No. 5 in b-flat major, op. 47 No. 2
  • 1856 String Quartet No. 6 in d minor, op. 47 No. 3
  • 1855 Sonata in f minorfor Viola and piano, op.49
  • 1857 3rd Trio in b-flat major, for violin, cello and piano, op. 52
  • 1860 1855 Rev. Quintet in F major, for flute, clarinet, bassoon, Horn and piano, op. 55
  • 1859 String Quintet in F major, op. 59
  • 1864 Quartet in C major, for violin, Viola, cello and piano, op.66
  • 1870 4th Trio in A major, for violin, cello and piano
  • 1871 Two string quartets, op. 90

Works for piano[Edit]Edit


See list of piano works of Anton Rubinstein for the main article on this topic.


  • Vospominanija Avtobiografičeskie (Autobiographical memories), in: Russkaja starina, november 1889; English: Autobiography of a. Rubinstein, Boston/Massachusetts 1890;
  • Literaturnoe nasledie . T. 3. Pis'ma, 1872-1894. Lekcii po istorii fortepiannoj literatury, vol. 3. letters. for lectures on the history of the piano literature, Moskva: Muzyka 1986. 276 p.
  • Literaturnoe nasledie vol. 2. letters. T. 2. Pis'ma, 1850-1871, Moskva: Muzyka 1984. 221 S.
  • A conversation on music-(Muzyka i ee predstaviteli), English, New York: Da Capo Press Reprint., 1982. 146 p., (Series: Da Capo Press Music Reprint Series), orig. publ. New York: C.F. Tretbar, 1892


  • M. van Paassen: Anton Rubinstein, a maligned giant, man and melody 40: 127-9 Mar 1985
  • Philip s. Taylor: Anton Rubinstein-A Life in Music, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007. 248 p., ISBN 978-0-253-34871-5
  • Larry Sitsky: Anton Rubinstein: an annotated catalog of piano works and biography, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998. 227 p., ISBN 0-313-25497-4
  • K. Jordan: The instructional principles of Anton Rubinstein, Journal of the American Liszt Society 37: 46-55 Jan-Jun 1995
  • Joseph Banowetz: Joseph Banowetz on Rubinstein, Clavier 33: 24 N10 1994
  • D. Swift: The legacy of Anton Rubinstein, Clavier 33: 20-21 N10 1994
  • Maurice Hinson: Exploring Rubinstein's works, Clavier 33: 22-4 N10 1994
  • Maurice Hinson: Reviews a. Rubinstein: Album de Peterhof, op. 75, Journal of the American Liszt Society 27: 64-5 1990
  • Jeremy Norris: The Russian piano concerto, vol. I: the nineteenth century, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1994, 227 p., ISBN 978-0-253-34112-9
  • Jeremy Norris: The Piano Concertos or Anton Rubinstein, Music Review, 46 (November 1985): 241-283.
  • Opernführer für Fortgeschrittene: Ulrich Schreiber . Die Geschichte des Musiktheaters-Anfängen bis zur Französischen Band 1: Von den Revolution, Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel 1988, ISBN 3-7618-0899-2
  • Opernführer für Fortgeschrittene: Ulrich Schreiber . Die Geschichte des Musiktheaters-Band 2: Das 19. Jahrhundert, Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel 1991, ISBN 3-7618-1028-8
  • Opernführer für Fortgeschrittene: Ulrich Schreiber . Die Geschichte des Musiktheaters-Band 3: Das 20. Jahrhundert. Teil 1: Von Verdi und Faschismus bis zumWagner, Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel 2000, ISBN 3-7618-14364
  • Opernführer für Fortgeschrittene: Ulrich Schreiber . Die Geschichte des Musiktheaters-Band 3: Das 20. Jahrhundert. Teil 2: Deutsche und italienische Oper nach 1945, Frankreich und Großbritannien, Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel 2005, ISBN 3-7618-14372
  • Opernführer für Fortgeschrittene: Ulrich Schreiber . Die Geschichte des Musiktheaters-Band 3: Das 20. Jahrhundert, Teil 3: Ost-und Nordeuropa, Nebenstränge am Interkontinentale, Verbreitung, Bärenreiter Verlag, semi-detached house in a Kassel 2006, ISBN 3-7618-18599
  • J. Weber: konkurs muzyczny w Europie Najstarszy im. Antoniego Rubinsteina, Ruch Muzyczny 34: 7 N12 1990
  • J.V. Moskva: Liszt and Anton Rubinstein, Journal of the American Liszt Society 26: 29-32 1989
  • Michel Maximovitch: L ' Opéra Russe 1731-1935, L ' âge d'homme (Lausanne), 1987. 431 p. ISBN 2-8251-3234-9
  • Darryl Lyman: Great Jews in Music, New York: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc., 1986. ISBN 0-824-X -60315
  • Sigrid cousin: Handbuch der sowjetischen Oper und Russian, Berlin: Henschelverlag Kunst und Gesellschaft, 1985. 760 p., ISBN 978-3-362-00257-8
  • Harvey Sachs: Virtuoso: the life of Nicolo PaganiniFranz Liszt, Anton Rubenstein, Ignace Jan PaderewskiFritz KreislerPablo CasalsWanda Landowska, Vl, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1982. 208 p., ISBN 978-0-500-01286-4
  • Lev Barenboim Rubinstejna pisem Iz A.G. Aronowitz: k E.F. councils. (Aus A.G. Rubinstein Briefing an E.F. councils) (;), muzyka. 1980, h. 11, s. 101-113.
  • Lev Barenboim Grigorevic Rubinstejn: Anton Aronowitz. Tvorcestvo Zizn, artistic, put,... (Anton G. Rubinstein. Leben, künstlerischer road,.......), t. 2. 1867-1894, Leningrad: Muzgiz 1962. 492 S.
  • Lev Barenboim Grigor'eviev Rubinsvtejn: Anton Aronowitz. Tvorcestvo Zizn, artist, music-obscestv, put '. dejatel'nost. (Anton Grigorjewitsch Rubinstein. Sein Leben und seine künstlerische Entwicklung), t. 1, Leningrad: CIS. muz. Izd. 1957.455 S.
  • Lev Barenboim Rubinsteinovskie tradicii i sovremennost Aronowitz: nasa. (Nachverfolgen zu Barenbojms Monographie uber Anton Rubinstein) (;), Muzyka. 25 (1961), h. 12, s. 74-81.
  • Charles Suttoni: Liszt's letters: Anton Rubinstein at Weimar, Journal of the American Liszt Society 8: 75-6 1980
  • Anton Stoijar: Rubinstejn Z.. (Anton Rubinstein. Kurzer Abriss seines Lebens und Schaffens.), Kartja moldovenjsske Klimev: 1969. 74 s.
  • Camille Saint-SaënsAnton Rubinstejn(;), Muzyka. 32 (1968) h. 1, s. 94-96.
  • Michael Goldstein: Zwei Zeugnisse des jungen Anton Rubinstein von Dehn und s. w. g. meyerbeer, Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft. 6 (1964), s. 238-242
  • Michael Goldstein: Ein unbekanntes Work von Anton Rubinstein, Musik und Gesellschaft. 13, (1963), s. 142-145.
  • Vilmos Somogyi: Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894), Muzsika. 6 (1963) No. 3, s. 31-32.
  • Zoltan Hrabussay: Anton Rubinstein a Bratislava. (Anton Rubinstein und Bratislava), Hudobnovedne study. 3 (1959), s. 196-204.

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.