Bernard Herrmann (New York, 29 June 1911 - Hollywood, 24 december 1975) was an American composer. He is considered as one of the great film composers of the 20th century. Herrmann is especially known for his collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock. Although he is primarily known for his work for the film, he also composed the music for radio-and television program's and for Ballets, and there are also a Cantata and anopera on his name.
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Herrmann began composing with music at an early age. He already got a prize for a composition at the age of thirteen. He got his training at the New York University and Juilliard School. He was already on his twentieth conductor of his own Chamber Orchestra: the New Chamber Orchestra. In 1933 he joined CBS as a composer and conductor for various radio programs and radio plays, including the Mercury Theater on Air by Orson Welles. He was the composer of the famous The War of The Worlds-radio play from 1938.
When Orson Welles his debut film Citizen Kane (1941) was going to make, he asked Herrmann the music writing, which thus made his motion picture debut in this film. Herrmann was awarded by Welles full artistic freedom. Also for Welles ' second film, The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), he composed the film music, but when he was told that his music was edited and rearranged by the studio bosses, he demanded that his name was deleted from the credits . In between these two movies, he composed the film music for The Devil and Daniel Webster by William Dieterle (also known as All That Money Can Buy), for which he won his onlyOscar .
Herrmann was a frequent composer of his debut in 1941 and remained active until his death in 1975. He experimented extensively with his music. He made for the score of the science fiction film The Day The Earth Stood Still (1951) excessive use of the thereminamong other things, in addition to an orchestra of piano, harp, percussion and brass instruments and electric instruments such as electric guitar , bass guitarand violin.From 1944 he began a long-term collaboration with 20th Century Fox, for which he composed the film music of movies like Jane Eyre (1944), The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947) and The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1953).He also worked regularly in the movies by special effectsexpert Ray Harryhausen, including Seventh Voyage of Sinbad (1957) and Jason and the Argonauts (1963).
His work is mainly associated with the films of Alfred Hitchcock, for whom he composed the score for all his films between 1955 and 1966: The Trouble with Harry, The Man Who Knew Too Much, The Wrong Man,Vertigo, North By Northwest, Psycho, Marnie and The Birds. For the last film he worked as sound designer: Although there was no music in the film, but electronic bird sounds composed. His best-known work is probably the score for Hitchcock's Psycho, for which he only stringed instruments used. Especially the screeching violin music from the shower scene is well known. The collaboration between Hitchcock and Herrmann was discontinued in 1966, when Hitchcock his music score for the film Torn Curtain refused.
He was also active in front of the TV; He composed, among other things, for "Alfred Hitchcock Presents", "The Twilight Zone" and "The Virginian". In addition to his work for film and tv he also wrote concert pieces, including a Cantata, Moby Dick (1938), and an opera, Wuthering Heights (1951).
Later he worked mainly for known Hitchcockfans as François Truffaut (Fahrenheit 451, La mariée était and noir) and Brian De Palma (Sisters, Obsession). The last movie for which he composed music was Taxi Driverby Martin Scorsese. He died a few hours after completing the recordings for this movie. Scorsese carried the film on to Herrmann.
Bernard Herrmann was married three times, with Lucille Fletcher, author of radio dramas, from 1939 to 1948, with Lucy Anderson of 1949 to 1964 and with Norma Shepherd from 1967 until his death in 1975.
Bernard Herrmann died in his sleep in a hotel room to heart failure. He was 64 years old.
In the introduction of the music video for Lady Gaga's Born this Way (2011) to hear his music piece is Vertigo.
- 1942 -best Film Music- The Devil and Daniel Webster (winner)
- 1942-best Film Music- Citizen Kane (nominated)
- 1944 -best Film Music- Anna and the King of Siam (nominated)
- 1977 -best Film Music- Taxi Driver (nominated)
- 1977-best Film Music- Obsession (nominated)
- 1952 - Golden Globe for Best Film Music- The Day The Earth Stood Still (nominated)
- 1955 - Emmy Award for Best music composed for tv-"Shower of Stars", A Christmas Carol for the episode (nominated)
- 1977 - Grammy Award for Best Album of Original score written for a film or television special- Taxi Driver (nominated)
- 1977 - Anthony Asquith BAFTA Award for Best Film Music- Taxi Driver (posthumous winner)
- Citizen Kane (1941)
- The Devil and Daniel Webster (1941)
- The Magnificent Ambersons (1942)
- Jane Eyre (1944)
- Anna and the King of Siam (1946)
- The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947)
- Portrait of Jennie (1948)
- The Day The Earth Stood Still (1951)
- The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1952)
- 5 Fingers (1952)
- The Trouble with Harry (1955)
- The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (1956)
- The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956)
- The Wrong Man (1956)
- Vertigo (1958)
- The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (1957)
- North by Northwest (1959)
- Journey to the Center of the Earth (1959)
- Psycho (1960)
- Cape Fear (1962)
- The Birds (1963)
- Jason and the Argonauts (1963)
- Marnie (1964)
- Fahrenheit 451 (1966)
- La Mariée était and noir (1968)
- Sisters (1973)
- Obsession (1976)
- Taxi Driver (1976)