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Édith Piaf (US // or UK //; French: [edit pjaf]; 19 December 1915 – 11 October 1963), born Édith Giovanna Gassion, was a French singer who became widely regarded as France's national diva, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars. Her singing reflected her life, with her specialty being of Chanson and ballads, particularly of love, loss and sorrow. Among her songs are "La Vie en rose" (1946), "Non, je ne regrette rien" (1960), "Hymne à l'amour" (1949), "Milord" (1959), "La Foule" (1957), "l'Accordéoniste" (1955), and "Padam ... Padam ..." (1951).
Despite numerous biographies, much of Piaf's life is shrouded in mystery. She was born Édith Giovanna Gassion in Belleville, Paris. Legend has it that she was born on the pavement ofRue de Belleville 72, but her birth certificate cites the Hôpital Tenon, the hospital for the 20th arrondissement, of which Belleville is part.
She was named Édith after the World War I British nurse Edith Cavell, who was executed for helping French soldiers escape from German captivity.[disputed – discuss] Piaf – an argotcolloquialism for "sparrow" – was a nickname she received 20 years later.
Louis-Alphonse Gassion (1881–1944), Édith's father, was a street acrobat performer from Normandy with a past in the theatre. He was the son of Victor Alphonse Gassion (1850–1928) and Léontine Louise Descamps (1860–1937), known as Maman Tine, who ran a brothel in Normandy.
Her mother, Annetta Giovanna Maillard (1895–1945), was of French descent on her father's side and of Italian and Berber origin on her mother's. She was a native of Livorno, a port city on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. She worked as a café singer under the name Line Marsa. Her parents were Auguste Eugène Maillard (1866–1912) and Emma (Aïcha) Saïd ben Mohammed (1876–1930), daughter of Said ben Mohammed (1827–1890), a Moroccan acrobat born in Mogador (now Essaouira), and Marguerite Bracco (1830–1898), born in Murazzano in Italy.
Édith's mother abandoned her at birth, and she lived for a short time with her maternal grandmother, Emma (Aïcha). Before he enlisted with the French Army in 1916 to fight in World War I, her father took her to his mother, who ran a brothel in Normandy. There, prostitutes helped look after Piaf.
From the age of three to seven, Piaf was allegedly blind as a result of keratitis. According to one of her biographies, she recovered her sight after her grandmother's prostitutes pooled money to send her on a pilgrimage honoring SaintThérèse of Lisieux. Piaf claimed this result was a miraculous healing. However, since keratitis is usually caused by HSV (herpes), HPV, etc. just the removal from prostitutes' care to a clean home could have been the curative medicine. Also, keratitis is very often mistaken for allergic conjunctivitis, which would also better account for her improved health.
In 1929, at 14, she joined her father in his acrobatic street performances all over France, where she first sang in public. At the age of 15, Edith met Simone "Mômone" Berteaut, who may have been her half-sister, definitely a companion for most of her life, and together they toured the streets singing and earning money for themselves for the first time. With the additional money Edith earned as part of an acrobatic trio, Edith and Mômone were able to rent their own living space. She separated from her father and took a room at Grand Hôtel de Clermont (18 rue Veron, Paris 18ème), working with Marmone as a street singer in Pigalle, Ménilmontant, and the Paris suburbs (cf. the song "Elle fréquentait la Rue Pigalle").
In 1932 she met and fell in love with Louis Dupont. Within a very short time he moved into their small room, where the three lived despite Louis and Mômone's dislike for each other. Louis was never happy with the idea of Edith's roaming the streets, and continually persuaded her to take jobs he found for her. She resisted his persuasions whenever possible, until she became pregnant and worked for a short while making wreaths in a factory.
In February 1933, when Edith was 17 years old, her daughter, Marcelle, was born in the Hôpital Tenon. Like her mother, Piaf found it difficult to care for a child while living a life of the streets, as she had little maternal instinct, parenting knowledge or domestic skills. She rapidly returned to street singing, until the summer of 1933, when she opened at Juan -les-Pins, Rue Pigalle. Marcelle's father, Louis, whom Edith never married, was incensed. They quarrelled and Edith left, taking Mômone and Marcelle. The three of them stayed at the Hôtel Au Clair de Lune, Rue André-Antoine. Marcelle was often left alone in the room while Edith and Mômone were out on the streets or at the club singing, and died of meningitis at age two.Columbia Records poster of Piaf in her trademark black dress
In 1935 Piaf was discovered in the Pigalle area of Paris by nightclub owner Louis Leplée, whose club Le Gerny off the Champs-Élysées was frequented by the upper and lower classes alike. He persuaded her to sing despite her extreme nervousness, which, combined with her height of only 142 centimetres (4 ft 8 in), inspired him to give her the nickname that would stay with her for the rest of her life and serve as her stage name, La Môme Piaf (Paris slang meaning "The Waif Sparrow" or "The Little Sparrow"). Leplée taught her the basics of stage presence and told her to wear a black dress, which became her trademark apparel. Later, she would always appear in black. Leplée ran an intense publicity campaign leading up to her opening night, attracting the presence of many celebrities, including actor Maurice Chevalier. Her nightclub gigs led to her first two records produced that same year, with one of them penned byMarguerite Monnot, a collaborator throughout Piaf's life and one of her favourite composers.
On 6 April 1936, Leplée was murdered. Piaf was questioned and accused as an accessory, but acquitted. Leplée had been killed by mobsters with previous ties to Piaf. A barrage of negative media attention now threatened her career. To rehabilitate her image, she recruited Raymond Asso, with whom she would become romantically involved. He changed her stage name to "Édith Piaf", barred undesirable acquaintances from seeing her, and commissioned Monnot to write songs that reflected or alluded to Piaf's previous life on the streets.
In 1940, Édith co-starred in Jean Cocteau's successful one-act play Le Bel Indifférent. She began forming friendships with prominent people, including Chevalier and poet Jacques Borgeat. She wrote the lyrics of many of her songs and collaborated with composers on the tunes. In 1944, she discovered Yves Montand in Paris, made him part of her act, and became his mentorand lover. Within a year, he became one of the most famous singers in France. She broke off their relationship when he had become almost as popular as she was.
During this time, she was in great demand and very successful in Paris as France's most popular entertainer. After the war, she became known internationally, touring Europe, the United States, and South America. In Paris, she gave Atahualpa Yupanqui (Héctor Roberto Chavero) – the most important Argentine musician of folklore – the opportunity to share the scene, making his debut in July 1950. She helped launch the career of Charles Aznavour in the early 1950s, taking him on tour with her in France and the United States and recording some of his songs. At first she met with little success with U.S. audiences, who regarded her as downcast. After a glowing review by a prominent New York critic, however, her popularity grew, to the point where she eventually appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show eight times and at Carnegie Hall twice (1956 and 1957).
Bruno Coquatrix's famous Paris Olympia music hall is where Piaf achieved lasting fame, giving several series of concerts at the hall, the most famous venue in Paris, between January 1955 and October 1962. Excerpts from five of these concerts (1955, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1962) were issued on record and CD and have never been out of print. The 1961 concerts, promised by Piaf in an effort to save the venue from bankruptcy, debuted her song "Non, je ne regrette rien". In April 1963, Piaf recorded her last song, "L'Homme de Berlin".
During World War II, she was a frequent performer at German Forces social gatherings in occupied France, and many people considered her a traitor; following the war she stated that she had been working for the French Resistance. While there is no evidence of this, it does seem to be true that she was instrumental in helping a number of people (including at least one Jew) escape Nazi persecution. Throughout it all, she remained a national and international favorite. Piaf dated a Jewish pianist during this time and co-wrote a subtle protest song with Monnot. According to one story, singing for high-ranking Germans at the One Two Two Club earned Piaf the right to pose for photographs with French prisoners of war, to boost their morale. The Frenchmen were supposedly able to cut out their photos and use them as forged passport photos.
Except for the daughter she had with her boyfriend, Louis Dupont, at age 17 - who died at age 2 of meningitis and neglect - Piaf never wanted nor had any more children.
The love of Piaf's life, the married boxer Marcel Cerdan, died in a plane crash in October 1949, while flying from Paris to New York City to meet her. Cerdan's Air France flight, flown on a Lockheed Constellation, crashed in the Azores, killing everyone on board, including noted violinist Ginette Neveu. Piaf and Cerdan's affair made international headlines, as Cerdan was the former middleweight world champion and a legend in France in his own right.
In 1951, Piaf was seriously injured in a car crash along with Charles Aznavour, breaking her arm and two ribs, and thereafter had serious difficulties arising from morphine and alcohol addictions. Two more near fatal car crashes exacerbated the situation. Jacques Pills, a singer, took her into rehabilitation on three different occasions to no avail.
Piaf married Jacques Pills, her first husband, in 1952 (her matron of honour was Marlene Dietrich) and divorced him in 1957. In 1962, she wed Théo Sarapo (Theophanis Lamboukas), a Greek hairdresser-turned-singer and actor who was 20 years her junior. The couple sang together in some of her last engagements.
Piaf lived in Belleville, Paris, with her parents from 1915–1934. From 1934–1941, she lived at 45 rue de Chézy in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. She lived at 45 rue Decazes in Marseille, France alone from 1941–1952 and with her Jacques Pills from 1953–1956. She continued to live there alone from 1956–1959. In her final years she lived at 23 rue Édouard Nortier in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France – alone from 1959–1962 and with Théo Sarapo from 1962–1963 until her death.Piaf's grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris
Piaf died of liver cancer at age 47 at her villa in Plascassier (Grasse), on the French Riviera, on 11 October 1963. She had been drifting in and out of consciousness for several months. Her last words were "Every damn fool thing you do in this life, you pay for." It is said that Sarapo drove her body back to Paris secretly so that fans would think she had died in her hometown. She is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris next to her daughter Marcelle, where her grave is among the most visited.
Although she was denied a funeral mass by the Roman Catholic archbishop of Paris because of her lifestyle, her funeral procession drew tens of thousands of mourners onto the streets of Paris and the ceremony at the cemetery was attended by more than 100,000 fans. Charles Aznavour recalled that Piaf's funeral procession was the only time since the end of World War II that he saw Parisian traffic come to a complete stop.Bust of Piaf inKielce, Poland
Piaf's work and name can still be found in popular culture and music today.
Numerous songs by Piaf are used in films and other media. Films such as Saving Private Ryan, Inception, Bull Durham, La Haine, The Dreamers and the animated film, Madagascar 3 all have Piaf's songs in them. Love Me If You Dare pays tribute to her song La Vie En Rose by including various versions of the song in its soundtrack. Musicians have paid tribute to her by covering her songs, for instance "Johnny, tu n'es pas un ange" was covered by Vaya Con Dios on their debut album.
Furthermore, Piaf's life has been the subject of multiple films and plays:
The film Piaf (1974) depicted her early years, and starred Brigitte Ariel, with early Piaf songs performed by Betty Mars.
Piaf...Her Story...Her Songs (2003) is a film starring Raquel Bitton in her performance tribute to Édith Piaf. Bitton performs Piaf's most famous songs and describes her tempestuous life. Woven into the filmed concert is a luncheon in Paris, hosted by Bitton, in which some of Piaf's composers, friends, lovers, and family share their memories. These include Michel Rivgauche and Francis Lai, two of Piaf's composers, as well as Marcel Cerdan, Jr., son of the boxing champion who was her greatest love.
La Vie en Rose (2007), a film about her life directed by Olivier Dahan, debuted at the Berlin Film Festival in February 2007. Titled La Môme in France, the film stars Marion Cotillard in the role that won her the Academy Award for Best Actress (Oscar), as Piaf. Dahan's film follows Piaf's life from early childhood to her death in 1963. David Bret's 1988 biography, Piaf, A Passionate Life, was re-released by JR Books to coincide with the film's release.
- "Piaf" (1978), by Pam Gems
- "Piaf Piaf" (1988), by Juha Siltanen and Jorma Uotinen
- "The Sparrow and the Birdman" (1999), by Raquel Bitton. Commissioned by Theatreworks
- "Edith and Simone" (2000 and 2006), by Ronny Verheyen
- "PIAF ... Her Story ... Her Songs" (2000), by Raquel Bitton
- "Hearts ... Le Ballet des Coeurs" (1985), by Raquel Bitton. Choreography Michael Smuin, Set Designs Tony Walton, Costumes Willa Kim
- "Pure Piaf" (2006), by Alex Ryer
- "No Regrets" (2009), by Scotti Sween (Off-Off-Broadway)
- "Piaf de Musical" (1999 and 2009), a Dutch musical
- "Piaf, het legendarische verhaal van Edith Piaf" (2009), by Yves Caspar
- "Edith Piaf Alive" (2011), by Flo Ankah
- "The Sparrow and the Mouse: Creating the Music of Edith Piaf" (2011), by Melanie Gall
- "Tonight ... Piaf" (1989), by Joelle Rabu and Ted Galay, directed by Ray Michal
- "Piaf, Her Songs, Her Loves" (1978), City Stage, Vancouver, directed by Ray Michal
- "The Power of Piaf" (1986), by Lily Charpentier, starring Daniele Pascal
- "Edith" (1988), by Pluto Panoussis and Daniele Pascal
- "Piaf, A Passionate Life" (2007 and 2008), by Daniele Pascal
- "Hymne à l'amour - The Songs of Edith Piaf" (2013), by Daniele Pascal
- "Edith Piaf on Stage" (2013), by Leslie Fitzwater
- La garçonne (1936), Jean de Limur
- Montmartre-sur-Seine (1941), Georges Lacombe
- Étoile sans lumière (1946), Marcel Blistène
- Neuf garçons, un cœur (1947), Georges Freedland
- Si Versailles m'était conté (1954), Sacha Guitry
- French Cancan (1954), Jean Renoir
- Música de Siempre (1958), sang La vida en rosa, the Spanish version of "La Vie en rose".
- Les Amants de demain (1959), Marcel Blistène
- Le Bel Indifférent (1940), Jean Cocteau
The following titles are compilations of Édith Piaf's songs, and not reissues of the titles released while Édith Piaf was active.
- Edith Piaf: Edith Piaf (Music For Pleasure MFP 1396) 1961
- Ses Plus Belles Chansons (Contour 6870505) 1969
- The Voice of the Sparrow: The Very Best of Édith Piaf, original release date: June 1991
- Édith Piaf: 30th Anniversaire, original release date: 5 April 1994
- Édith Piaf: Her Greatest Recordings 1935–1943, original release date: 15 July 1995
- The Early Years: 1938–1945, Vol. 3, original release date: 15 October 1996
- Hymn to Love: All Her Greatest Songs in English, original release date: 4 November 1996
- Gold Collection, original release date: 9 January 1998
- The Rare Piaf 1950–1962 (28 April 1998)
- La Vie en rose, original release date: 26 January 1999
- Montmartre Sur Seine (soundtrack import), original release date: 19 September 2000
- Éternelle: The Best Of (29 January 2002)
- Love and Passion (boxed set), original release date: 8 April 2002
- The Very Best of Édith Piaf (import), original release date: 29 October 2002
- 75 Chansons (Box set/import), original release date: 22 September 2005
- 48 Titres Originaux (import), (09/01/2006)
- Édith Piaf: L'Intégrale/Complete 20 CD/413 Chansons, original release date: 27 February 2007
- "Édith Piaf: The Absolutely Essential 3 CD Collection/Proper Records UK," original release date: 31 May 2011
There are in excess of 80 albums of Édith Piaf's songs available on online music stores.
- Édith Piaf – A Passionate Life (24 May 2004)
- Édith Piaf : Eternal Hymn (Éternelle, l'hymne à la môme, Non-US Format, Pal, Region 2, import)
- Piaf – Her Story, Her Songs (June 2006)
- Piaf: La Môme (2007)
- La Vie en rose (biopic, 2008)
- Édith Piaf – The Perfect Concert and Piaf The Documentary (February 2009)