Georg Friedrich Händel (English: George Frideric Handel) (Halle an der Saale23 February 1685 – 14 april London1759) was a Baroque composer. Handel wrote a lot of music-dramatic works: 42 29 oratoriosoperas, more than 120 cantatas, trios and duets. That corresponds to about 2000 Arias. Furthermore, English, German, Italian and Latin church musicserenades and odes. Among his instrumental works include the organ concertsconcerti grossiovertures and Chamber music such as oboe and violinsonatas and works for harpsichord and organ.

Together with Johann Sebastian Bach, which in the same year (1685) was born, is Handel as one of the greatest composers of his time seen. Handel composed over 610 works, many of which are still being carried out.


[hide]*1 Biography


Early life and education[Edit]Edit

[1]The birth House of Handel in Halle[2]Pietro Cardinal ottoboni, portrait byFrancesco Trevisani. Bowes Museum,DurhamEngland

Unlike Bach came not from a Handel musical family. The Handel's were wealthy artisans: grandfather Valentin Handel was Coppersmith and his father Georg Handel was started his career as a Barber and reached Royal Saxon and electoral Brandenburg Valet and surgeon. Early on revealed himself at Handel talent and interest in music.His father opposed initially against this tendency, but Handel practiced secretly. A visit to Weißenfels was decisive, when Duke Johan Adolf him – a child of only eight – heard play. At the hands of the Duke Handel got a music training at Friedrich Zachau, an organist in Halle. In 1702 he let register rightsas a student, as his father had planned. Handel as organist and in 1701, Telemann was to him come to listen. Handel got a regard to the reformed Lutheran Cathedral of Halle. There he had not much more to do than to guide the municipality zang. After a year held Handel it. In 1703 he gave his study and summer job on and he went on his own to Hamburg. There he found a job as a second violinist in the Theater am Gänsemarkt. There he met Reinhard Keiserand Johann Mattheson , Christoph Graupner common.

In the winter of 1703 – 1704[1Handel Gian Gastone de ' Medici met in Hamburg. [2[3[4Other authors suggest following Handel's first biographer John Mainwaring that his brother Prince Ferdinando de ' Medici was that Handel would have invited to visit Florence. [5[6[7[8of the music lover and singer Ferdinando is not known that he ever visited Hamburg. [9he is known (Of Gian Gastone in June 1705, without wife, returned to Florence for a year.[10]) it is an established fact that Handel pratolino in Florence and composers, singers and met the librettist Antonio Salvi . He has written the opera Rodrigo and in all likelihood one of the many instruments played, forerunners of the piano forte, in the possession of Ferdinando that had been developed by Bartolomeo Cristofori .

[3]Villa de ' Medici in pratolino

Handel went to Rome (1707-1708), played within a few days on the organ of the Basilica of St. John Lateran and wrote the oratorio Il trionfo del tempo and del disinganno. This composition was performed by Arcangelo Corelli and Arcadian on one of the weekly meetings at the Palace of the Marquess Francesco Ruspoli. [11Handel wrote for Ruspoli at least another fifty cantatas and got in addition commands of the art lover Benedetto PamphiljColonna Carlo and Cardinal ottoboni. In the salons, he met Alessandro Scarlatti and his son Domenico Scarlatti, which was as old as Handel. The two young men held a contest in improvisation: Handel won on the organ. In Naples , he composed the serenata Aci, Galatea e Polifemo for the marriage of the Duke of Alvito (1708). Handel In 1709 was staying in Venice near Vincenzo Grimani and composed the operaAgrippina for the famous Carnival. This work, with presumably his best libretto, submitted by Cardinal Grimani San Giovanni Grisostomo Theatre, and owner of the polite Il caro Sassone 27 performances and was welcomed by the exuberant audience.

In 1710 Handel was commissioned to write four anthems in Hannover through Ernest Augustus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the youngest brother of the later King George I of Great Britainappointed. At the end of that year, he traveled to London for the first time. Along the way he spent visiting Johan Wilhelm, Elector Palatine in Düsseldorf and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de ' Medici. In London, his opera Rinaldo – hastily written – an unparalleled success. Stayed away longer than intended, he traveled to Hannover, but determined to return as soon as possible.

The opera in London[Edit]Edit

[4]Queen's Theatre on Haymarket by William Capon

In 1712 Handel again got permission to go to London. Initially he attended the third Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington, only 18 years old and incredibly rich. For this architect and art lover wrote Amadigi di GaulaHandel, a fascinating, magical and intimate opera. Votes below the alt are missing and the staging was a lot of money spent. The visitors was discouraged to come on stage, because of the many moving parts. Many more famous is that the Water Music Handel composed for a pleasure trip of King George I on the Thames. The chapel made music, while the boats away with the tide.

[5]18th-century portrait of Senesino

Then he worked for James Brydges, the Duke of Chandos, become rich during the Spanish Succession war. Handel wrote for him eleven anthems, when he had a good choir. Acis and Galathea is a charming and perfect pastoral with humor and tragedy, was his most performed work and perfect to get to know his music. None other than Mozart wrote an edit with wind instruments. For the Royal Academy of Music, an aristocratic project for the performance of Italian operas, operating on the basis of shares, Handel travelled to Dresdenin 1719. He had to command the famous Castrato Senesino for as long a time as possible to contract. Handel stayed there several months and played for the elector of Saxony, Augustus the strong and his son, Frederick Augustus, who was particularly interested in Italian opera. He visited the implementation of Teofane, an opera by Antonio Lotti, conducted on the occasion of the wedding of the Crown Prince. The Italian singers came to London in the following year.

[6]Julius Caesar, manuscript from 1724

Handel took his childhood friend Johann Cristoph Schmidt and his son in service. Handel worked to its peak from his new home in Brook Street, located in the upscale Mayfair, which he moved into in 1723. [12Handel stopped writing cantatas, based on mythological histories and pastoral poems, intended for wealthy clients, which were carried out in privacy. In 1724 he wrote his most famous operas, Giulio Cesare , based on Tamarlanoand amorous adventures of Julius Caesar andTamerlane. Also the Church Cantata Silete Venti and the opera Rodelinda, Queen of Lombardy from 1725 are among his best work. Most characters in his operas are psychologically worked out; each party has Arias in a variety of moods, such as romantic love, rejection, anger and jealousy.

In 1727 Handel was English citizen and Anna of Hanover – he gave his best and most loyal apprentice – music and composition teacher. The following year, the Academy went bankrupt; the Italian opera was becoming less popular. On the other hand, the English-language The Beggar's Opera was a great success. Frederick, Prince of Wales supported this enterprise, which gave rise to a quarrel with his parents and his sister Anna.

Handel started a new company in Haymarket Theatre. Before that, he traveled to Italy in 1729. On the way back he met during a visit to his sick mother in Halle, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, inviting him his father, Johann Sebastian Bach, to visit. He pointed, however, an encounter with Bach. Back in England, Handel: a new way in he adapted his first English-language oratorio Esther, that in 1731 on his birthday in private company was staged. Anna van Hannover suggested Ester in the theatre to perform. It turned out to be a success and Handel invested the proceeds in the South Sea Company. When he suddenly doubled the prices at the performance of the English-language oratorio Deborah protested the subscription holders and pushed inward. Handel had to climbdown. At the premiere he had over a hundred musicians including 25 singers.

[7]Staging of an opera, by Giovanni Paolo Pannini

Handel managed not to compete with the Opera of the Nobility that almost all his singers such as the famous CastratoFarinelli but also composers such as Hasse and Porpora had contracted. Handel got a honorary doctorate in Oxford , but he refused because it said it had too busy. Meanwhile, Handel got a lot of criticism both on his manners, as well as on his performances of biblical scenes on the scene, and the use of foreign musicians. Some operas such as Orlando to a libretto by Metastasio flopten not really, but the criticism rose and profit stayed out. After contract had ended, Handel began in 1734 to his third company in Covent Garden. From this period are the successful works Alexander's FeastAriodante and Alcina.In 1737 Handel was mentally and physically into the well, after he was hit by a stroke, so he could hardly play. Everyone doubted that Handel would compose something ever again. Handel traveled in 1740 to the spa town of Aachen, sat for hours in bad kurende, and surprised the audience with his organ playing. The Baroque as an art form on its end and ran his last opera Deidamia polite in 1741 just three performances. Handel compensated the disappointments with much drinking and good food and there published cartoons, possibly also because of his preference for loud music, supported by trumpets, timpani and horns. [13]


[8]Announcement of a Fireworks two weeks later, likewise because of Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

Several years earlier was Handel started performing oratoriossuch as Deborah and Athaliah with the help of Italian singers. In 1739 he composed two new works, gloomy oratorios Saul and Israel in Egypt, but dramatically strong. L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato (1740) is another attractive and light work. One of his best known and most successful oratorio Messiah, is that on 13 april 1742 for the first time in Dublin was performed in a theater. The text, based on verses from the Old and New Testament, is of the English landowner Charles Jacobson, who delivered more excellent librettos. Jonathan Swift was made that the title had to be supplemented to A sacred oratorio. The executions had such a run-up that the ladies were asked not to come to the theater in crinoline. Handel decided to focus exclusively on English-language choral music and never to write an opera. In addition to the Foundling Hospital, an orphanage for abandoned children, the English fame of the work. [14ThePrince of Wales in 1750 was so impressed by the Hallelujah-chorus that he got up. This is still the tradition In Anglo-Saxon countries. [15]

On the secular oratorio Semele (1744), based on a story from the Greek mythology, with a love triangle to the taste of the public criticism, Handel got so many obscene that he decided refund.

Christoph Willibald Gluck In 1745 met Handel and his touring company. Handel had initially not much on with his young colleague. Yet he must have been impressed by him. They gave a benefit concert, where Handel and Gluck performed oratorios from old putte share a lost composition.

[9]Face on Vauxhall Gardens in 1751

The highlight of the third company of the musical drama Hercules (1745), based on Sophokles and Ovid, the madness aria Where shall I fly, in which all the compositional rules be patched to boot. Due to illness of the alt at the premiere was her party read by a basscatch a cold. After a break of only a week started to the oratorioBelshazzarHandel, that at the premiere hardly public pulled. This was followed by more successfully a new Jewish oratorio Judas Maccabeus (1746), according toRomain Rolland a grateful project for oratorio societies. On the occasion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Handel wrote the Music for the Royal Fireworks, for use in the performance in the Green Park. Also the dress rehearsal in Vauxhall Gardens was a success. Because of the 12,000 visitors supply roads on the Thames were clogged and there were three dead. One of the twelve trumpeters succumbed to the effort, which he had delivered the previous day. In the implementation of Theodora (1750), an early Christian story about the wife of Constantius Chlorus, who was forced by the Romans to work in a bath house, two musicians got free tickets. In the Hall was, according to Handel, enough space to dance. The libretto without "happy ending", an adaptation of a late and less well known book by Robert Boyle, estimated by Handel was high. When Handel began giving charity concerts for the Foundling Hospital, were also bishops in line. Formerly he had under their barrage located because he performed in the theater Christian subjects.

[10]Portrait of George Frideric Handel from1748 by Thomas Hudson (1701 – 1779)===Later years[Edit]===

In 1750 Handel travelled to Germany for the last time. He got on the way back, an accident between the Hague and Haarlem, where he probably – just as in 1740 – on the organ of the great Church had wanted to play. Back in England bought Handel a landscape of Salomon van Ruysdael and a face on the Rhine by Rembrandt. Handel had already Canaletto and Watteau 's work in his possession. He corresponded with the old Telemann and sent a box exotic plants to Hamburg.

In 1751, while writing his last oratorio Jephta he was blind to his left eye, which he stopped composing. In 1752 he lay under the knife of a number of surgeons because of cataracts. In 1753 was Handel completely blind, despite this lack, he continued to play organ and conducting.

[11]London in 1747 by Canaletto

He donated half his fortune away to a cousin in Gotha; some cousins, an aunt, befriended its attendants, a widow, his doctor got the rest. The organ, he donated to the theatre director John Rich, the librettist Charles Jacobson got two portraits, a charity founded got the score of the Messiah. [16]

On 6 april 1759 attended the old Handel in the Covent Garden Theatre in London the last execution of that season of his Messiah at. He then became suddenly ill. The strong Handel died on Holy Saturday, morning at eight o'clock. He was on 20 april 1759 under great public interest buried in Westminster Abbey, where he was buried.

[12]Baroque theater in Český Krumlov==Work[Edit]==

Many works published during his lifetime, sometimes without his approval, the so-called roof press, where his name was abused: this of course calls for his great popularity. [14]

Between 1787 and 1797 Samuel Arnold published a first edition of Handel's work, but he could not finish his work due to a fall from a flight of stairs. A second attempt is undertaken by the English Trade Society, founded in 1843. The musicologist Friedrich Chrysander from 1856 to 1894 in Leipzig has been working on aGesammtausgabe issued by the Händel-Gesellschaft in 93 parts and six supplements. The Hallische Händel Ausgabeappears since 1955. [17]

From 1978 to 1986, Bernd Baselt again his compositions categorized in the Händel-Werke-VerzeichnisAdmeto was in 1754 the last opera by Handel which was performed on a stage. Only from 1920 came his operas back on the play list, for the first time in Göttingen, where an annual festival is organised. [18]

Handel introduced various instruments for the first time: the viola d'amore and violetta marina (Orlando), the lute (Ode for St. Cecilia's Day), three trombones (Saul),Clarinets or high cornets (Tamerlano), lutelyrichordHorncontrabassoonviola da gambapositive organ and glockenspielharp (Dean Cesare, Alexander's Feast).[19]

Paintings Collection[Edit]Edit

Handel had an extensive collection of paintings, a number of land cards and prints [20was auctioned on 27-28 February 1760. Represented were Pieter Angellis,Anthonie van BorssomJan Brueghel the elderGiovanni Antonio CanalettoAnnibale CarracciPietro da CortonaBalthasar Denner,[21Willem van DiestNicolas DorignyFranz de Paula FergJoseph GoupyJan Griffier (I)Jan van GoyenAbraham HondiusHorizontiCornelis HuysmansGeorge LambertPietro Langston,Théobald MichauPier Francesco Mola, Montingo Antonio< b20 > [22] Joos de Momper?, Giovanni Paolo PaniniCharles ParrocelGiovanni Antonio PellegriniCornelis van PoelenburchJan PorcellisNicolas Poussin,RembrandtMarco RicciSebastiano RicciSalomon van RuysdaelRubensLouis-François RoubiliacAndrea del SartoRoelant SaverySamuel ScottGiovanni Niccolò ServandoniHerman van SwaneveltDavid TeniersPeter tillemansAntoine WatteauTitian, and John Wootton. [20[23]

Lists of works[Edit]Edit


In his first House in London, the Handel House Museum since 2001 is established. In addition, there is also the Händel-Haus in his birth house in Halle.


  • Burrows, d. (2000) Trade
  • Chrysander, F. (1858/60/67), Georg Friedrich Händel, 3dln. (until 1740, unfinished), Leipzig (heruitg. Hildesheim, 1966)
  • NG, j. (2001) Love at first hearing. Samuel Butler and G.F. Handel
  • Dean, w. & J.M. Knapp (1995) Handel's Operas 1704-1726
  • Dean, w. (2006) Handel's Operas 1726-1741
  • ' Trade. A Celebration of his Life and Times 1685 – 1759National Portrait Gallery London (1985)
  • Lions, j. van (1990) trade. Composers Series, J.H. Gottmer-Haarlem, ISBN 90 257 2033 1
  • Mainwaring, j. (1760) Memoirs of the life of the late George Frederic Handel
  • Marx, J.H. (1998) Handel's Oratorien, Oden und Serenaten
  • Rolland, R. Handel (1910). Famous musicians. Part XVIII
  • Schickling, d. (1985) Georg Friedrich Händel in Selbstzeugnissen und Zeitgenössischen Briefing, Documents

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