Marcus Garvey (Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica, 17 August 1887 - London, 10 June 1940) was one of the pioneers in the struggle for civil rights for black people in the United States. Garvey in 1914 in Jamaica founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which also became active in the United States from 1917.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born in Saint Ann's Bay on the North coast of Jamaica. His parents were Marcus Mosiah Garvey, SR., a Mason, and Sarah Jane Richards, who worked as a charwoman and farmer. Both his father and an uncle had an extensive library in which the young Marcus many las.After education he went to Jamaica's capital Kingston and found work as a typesetter in a printing company, and later as head-printer and foreman. He would in 1907 Vice-President of a Trade Union, and in 1908 was fired because he participated in a strike of printers.
After a period working at a Government Printer went Garvey in 1910 travel through Central America and the Caribbean. He lived for a period inPanamaand Costa Rica , while he worked on a banana plantation. He traveled through Europe, and also lived in Londonfrom 1912 to 1914, where he followed classes and other influences received. After his Jamaican experiences – where race played a part in the background-and always by his travels and migrations hit Garvey convinced of the need to unite all blacks international to improve their disadvantaged position.
Garvey in 1914 in Jamaica founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which also became active from 1917 in the United States. Migrated to the United States In 1916, Garvey and founded there the first UNIA Division outside Jamaica on. based in Harlem, New York to unite the blacks in the USA aimed Garvey.
Garvey wanted Africans and the African diaspora in the Americas and elsewhere, increase their self-esteem, and unite black Americans, Jamaicans and others learn more about their cultural heritage. Also he strove for liberation (dekolonialisering) of the African continent, as a home and power base of all blacks worldwide. He strove to repatriation to Africa.
Garvey was skeptical about the equal rights/integration-focus of other colored leaders in the United States in that period, such as w.e.b. Du Bois. Garvey believed that whites blacks never really would appreciate at what they saw as their country, and therefore pleaded for an independent black nation in Africa.
Through his Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and its journal Negro World he spread his "black is beautiful"-ideal for the purpose of the ' uplifting of the black people ', both in America (especially the United States and the Caribbean) as in Africa. The UNIA got a lot of members in the us, some estimate even millions, and was thus the first black mass movement. That way was Garvey at the head of the largest blacks movement of his time, and also at the base of "a distinctive tradition of black thought and action within American history".
The UNIA was occasionally plagued by internal incidents and conflicts, and by financial problems. The ambitious project, Black Star Line vessels in possession of UNIA between America's and also for Africa, repatriation, I end up being physical and financial deficits. In addition there was also critical of Garvey of other colored leaders such as w.e.b. Du Bois.
In addition to this, the Government of the United States and worked the FBI under the direction of j. Edgar Hoover, Garvey against. It was found first, however, nothing onwettelijks to the "last post" Garvey (which had no US passport) deal with on and off. That didn't work either at a later stage via a charge of "mail fraud". Garvey, for which he was sentenced to five years in prison in 1923.
In 1927, he was acquitted and deported back to Jamaica. There he undertook various activities: he founded a political party, and also cultural centers. However, opposition he experienced inJamaica and migrated in 1935 to the British capital London. There he remained active, though with reduced influence.
Eventually he died in London in 1940 to the effects of a brain hemorrhage.
The influence of these Jamaican is undeniable in the ideas of the Black Panther Party, on the Rastafarimovement in Jamaica, Garvey's homeland but also on Martin Luther King and the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X. He was also affect independence fighters, such as Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana.
Garvey was posthumously raised to the rank of a Prophet by the Rastafarian community that the coronation of Haile Selassie I would have predicted. This was in connection with a speech, pronunciations, and also a play by Garvey, in which he predicted the coronation of a King in Africa. This promised in Garvey's vision the liberation of blacks worldwide. Not long after, in 1930, Haile Selassie was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia . In addition to these "prophecy" prices the Rastafarian-trailer Garvey to its early promotion of black self-respect, repatriation and African unity.