- 2 Etymology
- 3 History
- 4 Boogie Woogie
It is believed that the American disc jockey Alan Freed was the one who coined the term rock-'n'-roll used for the first time in his radio program to indicate the new music style. He borrowed the name from the song "My Baby Rocks Me with one Steady Roll". The name was already used in each case in 1947 and should already be in the 1920 's have sprung up in the 'hose' of the black Americans: the term was for the sex act.
The first time that the term rock-n-roll was used in a song was in the song The Camp Meeting Jubilee from 1916. In that song you hear the text: "we've been rockin' an' rolling in your arms/Rockin' and rolling in your arms/In the arms of Moses."
The first rock-'n-rollnummers were taken up by African American artists such as Chuck Berry. In General, Rocket 88 (a type of car of the brand Oldsmobile) by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats, recorded on 3 March 1951, regarded as the first real rock and rollplaat. The number is held by Jackie Brenston, but Ike Turner is the actual composer and with his band The Kings of Rhythm also the actual Executive. The best known artist from the early years, however, was the white Bill Haley, that western swing country music to connect with thought and thus at a music kind of came out that seemed to inspire the young people especially. By the film Round Up of Rhythmfrom 1954 (the first rock-'n-rollfilm) and the better known film Rock Around the Clock from 1956 was this music world famous. The same song was also the soundtrack for the movie Blackboard Jungle (1955), over rugged teenagers who their school books in a New York slum, until an idealistic teacher teaches them some self-respect by on their plus points in play.
Little Richard and Chuck Berry were among the first artists who wrote their rock and rollnummers itself. The best known and most popular performers were Bill Haley andElvis Presley. Chuck Berry wrote lyrics that both black and white young people claims. His guitar playing would be for other leading guitarists on the pop music. Other important names are Bo Diddley, Fats Dominoand Jerry Lee Lewis.
Rock remained a mostly male affair. Many singers who uncompromisingly on the rock and rolltrein would not produce this period jumps. There were some singers who accompany themselves by rocking musicians were, like Wanda Jackson (Let's have a party), the very young Brenda Lee (Sweet nothin's) and above all – perhaps the most successful of them all – Janis Martin, but most singers made rather bravere mix forms, such as Sunny Gale. Usually this came down to the fact that the rocking saxophone and double bass were saved, but the guitars disappeared or even some more in the background were omitted, so that the "songbirds" not to distort their voices had to unpleasant sounds.
Quite the consumption industry played deftly on the rock craze in. Not only the music industry, including producers of hair cosmetics, clothes, flashy cars like the Thunderbird, films (Rebel Without a Cause etc.), cigarettes, soft drinks, turntables etc. all knew a reap. Rock and roll was therefore more than just a music flow, but a way of being, of life, a complete youth subculture. For the first time in history could young people (especially in the affluent America of the fifties) be seen as a separate group of consumers who had their own spending patterns with their own financial resources.
Rock and rollperiode ended in America about 1959. Buddy Holly was killed in February of that year (along with Ritchie Valens and The Big Bopper) and Elvis Presley was called up for military service. Reason were also scandals around Jerry Lee Lewis (marriage to his 14-year-old niece) and Chuck Berry (imprisonment) and the (for the Puritan America) to rugged performances by various bands. It was found, for example, the occurrence of Elvis Presley (nickname "Elvis the Pelvis") to offensive. It was running too much with his hips and that was unprecedented at the time. In some States of America was his performance even prohibited and allowed police officers to see if the actions of the artists was not too rough. During television recordings was sometimes only the top of his body filmed.
The rugged rock 'n' roll for that time disappeared in the US and there was among other things by the influence of the tv (American Bandstand) need for clean, good-looking and preferably white singers, such as Pat Boone and Tab Hunter. The music industry played in on this question with artists like Ricky Nelson (already popular thanks to the tv-series of his parents, Ozzie and Harriet), Bobby Goldsboro, Bobby Rydell, Bobby Vintonand Bobby Vee . In California, as the surf bands vomiting by Jan and Dean, and of course the Beach Boys, Chuck Berry-guitar Intros that often in their songs binnensmokkelden. Under pressure of commercialism was rock and roll more virtuous and adapted for a broader audience: not only the teenagers, their parents were also potential record buyers.
In that time came there is relatively little rock and roll music to Europe. The connections were not as good as nowadays. Singles from the USA were transferred in packets. Radio broadcasts from the US were not to receive in Europe and there was also little rock broadcast on public radio stations (there were then no teen programs and radio pirates appeared until mid 1960s). Dribs and drabs, the European youth served by the commercial Radio Luxembourg, that English-language broadcasts by the US military, groomed and AFNtransmitter. One was and remained curious and youth went himself to experimenting with the music form. While in the u.s., the trend to other popular music came, played by handsome teen idols, and new dances were created such as the twist, shake, fly, Hamza gully, pony, calypso and limbo, came there in the United Kingdom, and later also in the Netherlands, under the influence of rhythm and blues, new music groups emerged such as The Rolling Stones, Moody Blues, The Animals and, of course, The Beatles. These straps had a different sound than those from the us. The Beatles was a typical exponent of the merseybeat. Especially the members of the Rolling Stones had a rugged appearance. Long hair, rugged public performances, fights and shocking lyrics of their songs. The song Star star (also known as "Starfucker") was by the BBC even boycotted. Brown sugar talked about drugs and the number Mothers little helper on "uppers" and "downers" (pills).
These bands made in the sixties London 's the rock capital of the world. The combination of rock and blues was a great success. This period is known as the 'British invasion', of which The Jeff Beck Group with their very striking singer Rod Stewart turned out to be the most important in the late sixties. The break-through of these groups then made a new generation of rock 'n' rollfans who attended to in the 1970s.
However, there was also in the us still rock and roll made. In 1968 came under other Creedence Clearwater Revival with various unadulterated rock and rollnummers in the charts, as Proud Mary and Bad moon rising.In the southern States there were then again southern rock bands Lynyrd Skynyrd as active.
Despite the fact that rock and roll music has its ups and downs, there is invariably a flow in Netherlands and Belgium still people who the music still "experience". In dance schools one learns the twist and jive, Boogie Woogie. Fast food chains to interior furniture design is still the rock 'n' roll style is made on innovative way.