|Stylistic origins||Doom metal, hardcore punk, southern rock|
|Cultural origins||Mid 1980s|
|Typical instruments||Electric guitar, bass, drums, keyboards, vocals|
|Southern sludge - Stoner sludge|
|Southern United States|
|Stoner rock - Post-metal - Alternative metal - Grunge|
Sludge metal (sometimes referred to simply as "sludge") is a subgenre of heavy metal that melds elements of doom metal and hardcore punk, and sometimes southern rock. Sludge metal is typically harsh and abrasive; often featuring shouted or screamed vocals, heavily distorted instruments and sharply contrasting tempos. While the style was anticipated by the Melvins from Washington, many of its earliest pioneers were from the city of New Orleans.
Sludge metal generally combines the slow tempos, heavy rhythms and dark, pessimistic atmosphere of doom metal with the aggression, shouted vocals and occasional fast tempos of hardcore punk. As The New York Times put it, "The shorthand term for the kind of rock descending from early Black Sabbath and late Black Flag is sludge, because it's so slow and dense." Many sludge bands compose slow-paced songs that contain brief hardcore passages (for example, Eyehategod's "Depress" and "My Name Is God"). Mike Williams, a founder of the sludge style and member of Eyehategod, suggests that "the moniker of sludge apparently has to do with the slowness, the dirtiness, the filth and general feel of decadence the tunes convey". However, some bands emphasize fast tempos throughout their music. The string instruments (electric guitar and bass guitar) are downtuned and heavily distorted and are often played with large amounts of feedback to produce a thick yet abrasive sound. Additionally, guitar solos are often absent. Drumming is often performed in typical doom metal fashion. Drummers may employ hardcore D-beat or double-kick drumming during faster passages, or through the thick breakdowns (which are characteristic of the sludge sound). Vocals are usually shouted or screamed, and lyrics are generally pessimistic in nature. Suffering, drug abuse, politics and anger towards society are common lyrical themes.
Many sludge metal bands from the Southern United States incorporate Southern rock influences, although not all sludge bands share this style. There is some controversy as to whether the term refers to only the style emerging from New Orleans and later the American South more broadly, or to "a complete consciousness in the heads of like-minded Black Flag/Black Sabbath influenced scenes and individuals all over the world". So-called "atmospheric" sludge bands adopt a more experimental approach and compose music with an ambient atmosphere, reduced aggression and philosophical lyrics. Due to the similarities between sludge and stoner metal, there is often a crossover between the two genres, but sludge metal generally avoids stoner metal's usage of psychedelia. Sludge metal also bears some musical and lyrical resemblance to crust punk, due to the usage of political lyrics and thick, "dirty" guitar sounds.
Along with Black Flag and Black Sabbath, musicians cited by pioneers of the style as influential include Mississippi John Hurt, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Greg Ginn, Trouble, Carnivore, Saint Vitus, Gore, Righteous Pigs, Amebix and Swans. Early sludge metal groups also borrowed from the industrial music of SPK, Throbbing Gristle, Chrome and Swans. The beginnings of sludge have been traced to the "slow punk" of Flipper, Swans 1984 Cop (album) album, and Black Flag's album My War.
Perhaps the most significant influence was Melvins, a band from the state of Washington. Their earliest releases, Six Songs (1986) and Gluey Porch Treatments (1987), are often regarded as the first sludge records. At this time, the band was also an important member of Washington grunge scene. Another prominent band from the Washington grunge scene, Alice in Chains have also been influential to early sludge metal with their second album Dirt. Neurosis, from Oakland, were also significant early practitioners.
At the beginning of the 1990s, a number of bands from Louisiana (particularly New Orleans with its metal scene) took these influences and developed the style that would be known as sludge. Eyehategod (formed in 1988), Crowbar (formed in 1989 as The Slugs) and Acid Bath (formed in 1991) pioneered this movement. On the East Coast, Buzzov*en (formed in 1989), 16 (formed in 1990) and Grief (formed in 1991) adopted a slower-paced approach to the emerging genre.
According to Phil Anselmo,
Back in those days, everything in the underground was fast, fast, fast. It was the rule of the day. But when the Melvins came out with their first record, Gluey Porch Treatments, it really broke the mold, especially in New Orleans. People began to appreciate playing slower. With that, all the old Black Sabbath came back around and then you start digging and you come to your Saint Vitus, your Witchfinder General, your Pentagram, etc.
Sludge metal subsequently spread throughout the Southern and Eastern United States.
Jose Carlos Santos notes a focus shift as a result of the impact of the British group Iron Monkey's first album in 1997:
Coincidence or not, it seemed like the sludge floodgates opened to the rest of the world, and in the past decade small pockets, or mini-scenes, can be spotted in just about any country you'd care to mention.
These include the Japanese group Corrupted and contemporary American groups such as Dumb Numbers, Lair of the Minotaur, Old Man Gloom and Kylesa. In addition, the U.S. state of Georgia has been identified as major sources of new sludge groups such as Mastodon, Baroness, Black Tusk, and Kylesa.
During the late 1990s, many sludge metal bands began to incorporate post-rock elements into their music. This new sound, referred to as "post-metal", was greatly inspired by the experimental style of Neurosis during the early to mid 1990s, and is performed by prominent bands such as Isis, Cult of Luna and Pelican.
Traditional/Southern sludge metalEdit
These bands are the pioneers of the genre or are strongly influenced by those bands. Many are from the Southern United States, excluding the Melvins who are from Montesano, Washington and Iron Monkey who are from England.
- Acid Bath
- Corrosion of Conformity
- Crowbar (formed in 1989 as The Slugs)
- Harvey Milk
- Iron Monkey
- Superjoint Ritual
Stoner sludge metalEdit
These bands have mixed typical stoner metal traits with typical sludge metal traits, and may be considered a part of both genres.
- Electric Wizard
- High on Fire
- Mico de Noche
Other fusions with sludge metalEdit
- Alice in Chains (sludge metal, alternative metal and hard rock)
- Baroness (sludge metal and progressive metal)
- Black Label Society (sludge metal, hard rock and Southern rock)
- Black Tusk (sludge metal, hardcore punk and stoner rock)
- Boris (sludge metal and drone metal)
- Cancer Bats (sludge metal, hardcore punk and southern rock)
- Dumb Numbers (sludge, doom, noise rock, "swooning feedback pop")
- Fudge Tunnel (sludge metal, noise rock and alternative metal)
- Helms Alee (sludge metal and shoegaze)
- Isis (sludge metal and post-rock)
- KEN Mode (sludge metal, noise rock and post-hardcore)
- Kingdom of Sorrow (sludge metal and metalcore)
- Lair of the Minotaur (sludge metal and thrash metal)
- Mastodon (sludge metal, progressive metal and alternative metal)
- Mistress (sludge metal and death metal)
- Part Chimp (sludge metal and noise rock)
- Red Fang (sludge metal and stoner rock)
- Soilent Green (sludge metal and grindcore)
- Will Haven (sludge metal and metalcore)
- Whores (sludge metal and noise rock)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 AllMusic: Doom Metal. AllMusic. Retrieved on November 19, 2012.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Huey, Steve. Eyehategod. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ "Pop/Jazz Listings, page 2". The New York Times. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 York, William. Eyehategod - In the Name of Suffering. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Sludge Special", p. 43.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 York, William. Eyehategod - Dopesick. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 York, William. Eyehategod - Take as Needed for Pain. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 York, William. Soilent Green - Sewn Mouth Secrets. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 24, 2010.
- ↑ Jeffries, Vincent. Crowbar - Crowbar. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ Kennedy, Patrick. Buzzov-en - To a Frown. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ Kennedy, Patrick. Buzzov-en - Sore. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ York, William. Acid Bath - When the Kite String Pops. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 12, 2008.
- ↑ Huey, Steve. Corrosion of Conformity. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 York, William. Soilent Green. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Downey, Ryan J. Isis. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ Serba, John. Bongzilla - Gateway. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008. “…sounding like a cross between Sleep's drowsy, Black Sabbathy meanderings and Electric Wizard/Burning Witch-style gut-curdling, muddy sludge.”
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Mason, Stewart. Kylesa. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008. “…elements of hardcore punk, psychedelic stoner rock, technical speed metal, and good old-fashioned Black Sabbath sludge appear in their music.”
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 "Sludge Special", p. 44.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Conway, James. How Haven't You Heard… Alice in Chains – Dirt. Vulture Hound Magazine. Retrieved on November 16, 2012.
- ↑ Christopher, Michael. Alice in Chains: Dirt. PopMatters. Retrieved on November 16, 2012.
- ↑ "Sludge Special", p. 51.
- ↑ Huey, Steve. Crowbar. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 York, William. Acid Bath. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 York, William. Buzzov-en. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ J. Bennett, "Hazardous Prescription", Precious Metal: Decibel Presents the Stories Behind 25 Extreme Metal Masterpieces, Albert Mudrian, ed., Da Capo Press, p. 177.
- ↑ J. Bennett, "Pillar of Eternity", Precious Metal: Decibel Presents the Stories Behind 25 Extreme Metal Masterpieces, Albert Mudrian, ed., Da Capo Press, p. 268.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 "Sludge Special Part 2", p. 41.
- ↑ Burgess, Aaron (2006-05-23). The loveliest album to crush our skull in months. Alternative Press. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 Top 10 New Orleans Metal Bands. Yahoo! Voices (2010-02-18).
- ↑ York, William. Harvey Milk. AllMusic. Retrieved on August 30, 2014.
- ↑ Kott, Paul. Iron Monkey. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 19, 2008.
- ↑ Raggett, Ned. Melvins - Gluey Porch Treatments. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 19, 2008.
- ↑ Rivadavia, Eduardo. Bongzilla. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 19, 2008.
- ↑ Rivadavia, Eduardo and Koets, Tara. Electric Wizard. AllMusic. Retrieved on September 2, 2008. “…it so effortlessly bridged the stylistic gaps between doom, sludge, stoner, horror, and, at times, even space metal…”
- ↑ Violante, Isaiah. High on Fire - Surrounded by Thieves. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved on September 1, 2008. “…manufacturing that sludgy, choleric sound…”
- ↑ MusicMight :: Artists :: High on Fire. MusicMight. Retrieved on November 21, 2012.
- ↑ Pegoraro, John (2009-10-13). Mico de Noche/Brothers of the Sonic Cloth - Split. Stonerrock.com. Retrieved on July 15, 2010.
- ↑ Levin, Hannah (2009-12-30). Our Favorite Local Releases of 2009. Seattle Weekly. Retrieved on July 15, 2010. “Mico de Noche's two brutal blasts of galvanized sludge are perfectly concise counterpoints”.
- ↑ Heaney, Greg. Torche. AllMusic. Retrieved on June 10, 2008.
- ↑ Rivadavia, Eduardo. Weedeater. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 19, 2008.
- ↑ The Metal's Gone, but the Tunes and Moods Remain. Press-Telegram (Long Beach, CA)'. Retrieved on September 28, 2012.
- ↑ Considine, J.D. (1992-10-23). "Alice in Chains breaks free of a style". The Baltimore Sun (Baltimore). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/baltsun/access/113518205.html?dids=113518205:113518205&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+23%2C+1992&author=J.D.+Considine&pub=The+Sun&desc=Alice+in+Chains+breaks+free+of+a+style&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- ↑ Christopher, Michael (September 23, 2003). Alice in Chains: Dirt. PopMatters. Retrieved on September 28, 2012.
- ↑ Familton, Chris. ALICE IN CHAINS The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here. The Music.com.au. Retrieved on May 24, 2013.
- ↑ Coffey, Russ. CD: Alice in Chains - The Devil put Dinosaurs Here. The Arts Desk. Retrieved on May 27, 2013.
- ↑ Deming, Mark. Baroness. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 21, 2008.
- ↑ Prato, Greg. Baroness - Red Album. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 21, 2008.
- ↑ MusicMight :: Artists :: Black Label Society. MusicMight. Retrieved on September 28, 2012.
- ↑ Heaney, Gregory. Black Tusk biography. AllMusic. Retrieved on February 29, 2012.
- ↑ Currin, Grayson (2010-07-07). Taste the Sin review. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved on February 29, 2012.
- ↑ York, William. Boris. AllMusic. Retrieved on February 17, 2012.
- ↑ Colgan, Chris (2010-03-05). Cancer Bats: Bears, Mayors, Scraps & Bones. PopMatters. Retrieved on February 17, 2012.
- ↑ Patashnik, Ben. Cancer Bats Review on BBC. BBC Music. Retrieved on February 17, 2012.
- ↑ The Agency Group | Cancer Bats. The Agency Group. Retrieved on February 29, 2012.
- ↑ Weingarten, Chris (August 5, 2013). "Stream Dumb Numbers' Swooning Feedback-Pop Self-Titled Debut Album". SPIN. http://www.spin.com/articles/dumb-numbers-adam-harding-joyful-noise-melvins-dinosaur-jr-sebadoh/. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- ↑ Pearis, Bill. Dumb Numbers released guest-filled LP (Lou Barlow, David Yow, Dale Crover & more), opening for MBV (dates, streams). Brooklyn Vegan. Retrieved on November 17, 2013.
- ↑ Rivadavia, Eduardo. Fudge Tunnel. AllMusic. Retrieved on February 17, 2012.
- ↑ Heaney, Gregory. Helms Alee – Overview. AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on November 22, 2012.
- ↑ AltPress Staff (2011). File Under: Arty psych-sludge. Alternative Press. Retrieved on November 22, 2012.
- ↑ Freeman, Phil. Venerable – Overview. AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on November 22, 2012.
- ↑ Kasparian, Ryan (2012-03-24). KEN Mode – Venerable. Profound Lore Records. Retrieved on November 22, 2012.
- ↑ Prato, Greg. Kingdom of Sorrow - Kingdom of Sorrow. AllMusic. Retrieved on February 29, 2012.
- ↑ Lair of the Minotaur. Sputnikmusic. Retrieved on July 18, 2009.
- ↑ York, William. Mastodon. AllMusic. Retrieved on May 19, 2008.
- ↑ Rivadavia, Eduardo. Mistress - II: The Chronovisor. AllMusic. Retrieved on February 29, 2012.
- ↑ Part Chimp. Rock Action Records (Glasgow)'. Retrieved on November 22, 2012.
- ↑ Soilent Green. Metal Blade Records. Retrieved on May 24, 2010.
- ↑ Prato, Greg. Will Haven. AllMusic. Retrieved on February 29, 2012.
- ↑ Fisher, Greg (October 28, 2013). Whores. - Clean (staff review). Sputnikmusic. Retrieved on April 8, 2014.